VitroTEM – Graphene liquid cells at a click



The Naiad-1 is VitroTEM’s benchtop device for automated GLC fabrication. Naiad-1 fully automates the preparation and handling of graphene, delivering efficient and reliable sample production. Easy-to-use software guides the user through the GLC assembly process. Naiad-1 makes the use of GLCs easy and attainable for any laboratory.


Transfer and automated GLC Fabrication

VitroTEMs properietary graphene transfer technology is based on Loop-Assited Transfer (LAT). Our technology does not require any assistant polymer layers or post-processing steps, delivering ultra- clean graphene without any polymer traces. Our clean and reliable transfer technology is ideally suited for assembling GLCs for high-resolution TEM imaging.

VitroTEM provides disposalble metal loops on a disposable cartridge that is mounted on the Naiad-1 by hand.

Naiad-1 system

Loop-Assisted Transfer (LAT)

GLCs are formed by sandwiching a liquid sample between a top and bottom graphene layer. The bottom layer is supplied on a standard TEM grid available in two grades:


  • Standard: Ultra-thin carbon coated grids for cost-effective screening.
  • Premium : Single-layer graphene coated grids for optimal TEM imaging.

The TEM grid and a small blotting paper are held on a disposable cartridge that is mounted on the Naiad-1 by hand. Any type of aqueous sample can by added by pipetting a volume of 0.5 – 5 µl onto the TEM grid.

The top graphene layer is transferred onto the sample by automated loop-assisted transfer (LAT). After automated blotting, the GLC grid can immediately be mounted on a TEM grid holder and inserted into the electron microscope.
The CLG assembly process takes around 3 minutes.


Graphene-on-Copper Disk

VitroTEM provides home-grown high-quality graphene that is quaranteed to deliver ultra-clean GLC grids with highly crystalline monolayer graphene and full grid coverage. VitroTEMs proprietary graphene is supplied on a small copper disk.

The Naiad-1 features a flow cell for the controlled etching of the copper disk preceding GLC assembly. The etching takes around 4.5h. Etching can be done overnight to have graphene ready for use in the morning. After etching, the graphene floats freely on the surface of the liquid in the flow cell.

Graphene is an unrivaled substrate for transmission electron microscopy, offering optimal electron transparancy, efficient charge dissipation, as well as protection against beam damage. GLCs fully encapsulate liquid-based samples. The water- and vacuum tight graphene encapsulation allows liquid-phase imaging, enabling the study of dynamic processes in living biological cells and tissues, or analyse nanomaterials and single-nanoparticle analysis at atomic resolution.

Graphene Liquid Cells

GLCs are sub-micron size pockets of water trapped between two layers of graphene. VitroTEM brings GLC-technology as a standard tool for routine research in Liquid Phase Electron Microscopy (LPEM), enabling systematic exploration of aqueous samples.

Protein in a Graphene Liquid Cell


The GLC Kit contains all the necessary tools to fabricate a total of 5 GLC grids:

  • 5x TEM Grid Cartridge (various types available),
  • 5x Graphene-on-Copper Disk,
  • 1x Graphene Disk Carrier,
  • 5x Loop Cartridge.

The Naiad-1 can simultaniously etch up to 5 Graphene-on Copper Disks in a single run. After etching, Naiad-1 can fabricate 5 GLC grids in a row or keep the remaining graphene on stand-by for GLC assembly at a later stage.

Fluids Pack

The Liquids Pack contains 4 bottles of proprietary fluids used for the etching of copper from the Graphene-on-Copper Disks. The Liquids Pack has a capacity for 7 GLC fabrication runs, providing a maximum production of 35 GLC grids per Fluids Pack.VitroTEM supplies a variety of commonly used buffers for the final stage of GLC assembly. During loop-assisted transfer of graphene onto the grid, minor dilution of the sample cannot be avoided. The use of buffer at this stage of the assembly ensures that the buffer composition and concentration in the GLSs is not affected. The Naiad-1 allows the use of users’ own custom buffer or medium.

Naiad-1 specifications


Technology GLC Graphene Liquid Cell fabrication on TEM grid by means of loop-assited transfer
size range GLC 100-1.000nm (av.diameter)
Density 10-100 GLC per µm²
Graphene quality Ultra-clean single-layer highly crystaline graphene



Etching cycle Etching 4.5h hours
Capacity GLC fabrication Up to 5 Graphene-on-Copper Disks per etching cycle
Time Graphene 3 minutes per GLC grid
Deposition yield > 85%
Graphene coverage¹ > 95%



Dimensions 380 x 355 x 520 mm (D x W x H)
Weight 25 kg (excluding bottles)
Operating temp. range 15-30 °C
Power usage Up to 150W
Voltage PC AC 110 – 240 V, 50-60Hz
requirements Windows 10 or 11, 16 Gb RAM, 1x USB 2.0 (minimum requirements)



GLC Kit – Standard Consumable to fabricate 5 CLG grids:
5x Graphene-on-Copper Disk
5x Ultra-thin carbon coated TEM grid on a disposable cartridge
5x Transfer loop on a disposable cartridge
1x Graphene Disk Carrier
GLC Kit – Premium Same as GLC KIT – Standard but with differnt TEM grids:
5x Single-layer graphene coated TEM grid on a disposable cartridge
GLC Kit – Ultra Same as GLC KIT – Standard but with differnt TEM grids:
5x Single-layer, ultra clean graphene coated TEM grid on a disposable cartridge
Fluids Pack² Set of bottles of proprietary fluids sofficient for 7 etching cycles:
1x Etching solution
1x Rinsing liquid
1x Ultra-pure water
1x Buffer (various standard buffers available) ³

¹ Graphene coverage of the imaging area of the grid.
² It is mandatory to exclusively use the Fluids Pack in the Naiad-1. The use of other fluids (other than the user’s own buffer or medium) may damage the device and will invalidate the warranty.
³ The use of non-proprietary buffer fluids may affect the quality and yield of the GLCs.